02. Singing Against the Dictatorship (1959-1975): The Nova Cançó



1. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca”

From: Lluís Llach. Concèntric 6075-UC, 1968, 45 rpm.


Lluís Llach i Grande: voice, guitar.





Historic 1985 performance at the Camp Nou (Barcelona Football Club Stadium) of “L’estaca”, one of the most popular Catalan songs in the world.


Additional examples

1a. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca” 


Live in Barcelona’s Palau d’Esports, 1976



1b. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca”


Lluís Llach i Grande: voice, piano. Live in Madrid, 2004.



1c. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca”


Polish version (“Mury”) of “L’estaca” by singer-songwriter Jacek Kaczmarski. This song became the anthem of the Polish Solidarność movement.



1d. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca” 


An electronic version of “Mury” by French composer Jean Michel Jarre.


1e. Lluís Llach, “L’estaca” 


“Dima, dima,” Arabic version by singer-songwriter Amel Mathlouthi.



2. Raimon, “Al vent”

From: Raimon I. Edigsa CM14, 1962, 45 rpm.


Raimon: voice, guitar.





“Al vent” was the first song in Catalan that became popular throughout Spain during the Franco’s dictatorship. In this example, Raimon performs the song at Barcelona’s Palau Sant Jordi (1993).


Additional example

2a. Raimon, “Al vent”


Japanese version by Warabi-za, live at Barcelona’s Palau Sant Jordi (1993).



3. Raimon, “Diguem no”

From: Se’n va anar – Vè. Festival De La Cançó Mediterrània. Edigsa CMN 27, 1963, 45 rpm.


Raimon: voice, guitar.





“Diguem no” was the first Catalan song banned during Franco’s regime. An excerpt from the lyrics reads: “No. / I say no. / Let’s say no, / we don’t belong to this world”. Raimon performs the song at Barcelona’s Palau Sant Jordi (1993).


Additional example

3a. Raimon, “Diguem no”

Historic October 1975 live performance at Barcelona’s Palau d’Esports, at the time when Francisco Franco was dying.



4. Joan Manuel Serrat, “Cançó de matinada”

From: Cancó de matinada. Edigsa CMN 163, 1966, 45 rpm.


Joan Manuel Serrat: voice, guitar.





This song was composed and performed by Joan Manuel Serrat in Catalan and became number one in the Spanish charts in 1968. The dictatorship was shocked by the power of the Nova Cançó throughout the country and from that year on, the censorship became even stronger.


5. Maria del Mar Bonet, “Què volen aquesta gent?”

From: Què volen aquesta gent? Concèntric 6067-UC, 1968, 45 rpm.


Maria del Mar Bonet: voice, guitar; and Quilapayún.





This dramatic song is performed by Maria del Mar Bonet with Quilapayún, one of the most important bands from the Nueva Canción Chilena movement. The musicians play traditional instruments of the Andes (quena, charango, bombo). The text was written by the poet Lluís Serrahima: it denounces the police procedures used in the arrest of the student Rafael Guijarro Moreno, who died when the police threw him out the window.


Additional example

5a. Maria del Mar Bonet, “Què volen aquesta gent?”


A Catalan rumba version by the gypsy band Sabor de Gràcia.



6. Lluís Llach, “I si canto trist”

From: I si canto trist… Movieplay 17.0523/7, 1974, 33⅓ rpm.


Lluís Llach: voice, piano.





Lluís Llach composed this song one month after the execution of the anarchist Salvador Puig Antich (1948-1974) by Franco’s regime. The song is dedicated to him.


Additional example

6a. Lluís Llach, “I si canto trist”


Another version, featuring Llach and folk singer Miquel Gil, recorded in 2008 for the soundtrack of the movie Salvador Puig Antich by Manuel Huerga.